An Executive Agreement Entered Into By A Philippine President
A contract requires Senate approval to be valid, whereas an executive agreement only requires the signature of the president or his representative, without the need for Senate approval. The Edca was signed by the Minister of Defence, Voltaire Gazmin, and was not submitted for ratification by the Senate. In the United States, executive agreements are made exclusively by the President of the United States. They are one of three mechanisms through which the United States makes binding international commitments. Some authors view executive agreements as treaties of international law because they bind both the United States and another sovereign state. However, under U.S. constitutional law, executive agreements are not considered treaties within the meaning of the contractual clause of the U.S. Constitution, which requires the Council and the approval of two-thirds of the Senate to be considered a treaty. An executive agreement is really a concept of domestic law that applies to a treaty of international law. In the United States, executive agreements are binding at the international level when negotiated and concluded under the authority of the President on foreign policy, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces or from a previous congressional record. For example, the President, as Commander-in-Chief, negotiates and concludes Armed Forces Agreements (SOFAs) that govern the treatment and disposition of U.S. forces deployed in other nations. However, the President cannot unilaterally enter into executive agreements on matters that are not in his constitutional jurisdiction.
In such cases, an agreement should take the form of an agreement between Congress and the executive branch or a contract with the Council and the approval of the Senate.  – The historical practice of the Philippines (and the United States) has transposed into the authority of the President to unilaterally terminate contracts; “The verbal agreement was recorded by an appropriate official during the bilateral meeting. Mr. Speaker has expressly said so. While he was foreign minister, spokesman Alan Peter Cayetano also took a stand in front of the public, saying that the Philippines and China “co-control” the controversial waters and that fishermen should be free to fish there. This presentation addressed this topic in his press articles. This administration was as transparent as it can be,” he added. The U.S.
Supreme Court Pink (1942) found that international agreements, which were concluded in law, have the same legal status as treaties and do not require Senate approval. To Reid v. Concealed (1957), the Tribunal, while reaffirming the President`s ability to enter into executive agreements, found that such agreements could not be contrary to existing federal law or the Constitution. Senator Tolentino, who has struggled no less with an experienced senator and not my lawyer himself, Franklin Drilon, after his privileged speech, defended President Duterte`s alleged oral agreement with Prime Minister Xi Jinping as the exercise of his powers as “chief architect of Philippine foreign policy.” Finally, does the President have the power to unilaterally withdraw the country from an international agreement? Some senators do not think so.